Tag Archives: Special Circumstances


CC 703: Felony Murder: Special Circumstance Liability — Factors Re: Major Participant Determination
September 16th, 2016

PC 190.2(d) was designed to codify the holding of Tison v. Arizona (1987) 481 U.S. 137 [95 L. Ed. 2d 127, 107 S. Ct. 1676], “which articulates the constitutional limits on executing felony murderers who did not personally kill.” (People v. Banks (2015) 61 Cal. 4th 788, 794.) “Tison and a prior decision on which […]


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Gang Special Circumstance
August 17th, 2015

  People v. Carr (2010) 190 Cal. App. 4th 475, 486, held that CC 736’s “inclusion of a knowledge element in the special circumstances of killing on behalf of a gang is not legally incorrect even if the statute itself does not expressly require its inclusion because it is constitutionally required.” Carr did note, however, […]


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Gang Special Circumstance: Predicate Offense Must Occur Before Charged Offense
February 1st, 2014

  People v. Duran (2002) 97 Cal. App. 4th 1448, 1458, [predicate offense cannot be satisfied by a crime which occurred after the charged offense].


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Felony Murder Special Circumstances: Required Elements
February 1st, 2014

  In a felony-murder special-circumstances case the judge has a duty to instruct that the defendant must (1) have personally had the intent to kill or (2) have been a major participant in the commission of the underlying felony and have acted with reckless indifference to human life. (People v. Mil (2012) 53 Cal. 4th […]


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