Tag Archives: Conspiracy

Extortion: Sample Instruction on Affirmative Defense of Litigation Privilege
February 13th, 2020

In People v. Toledano DEPUBLISHED (2019) 36 Cal.App.5th 715 (G051787) a jury convicted Toledano of conspiracy to commit extortion and attempted extortion. The Court of Appeal reversed the judgment because the trial court prejudicially erred by not instructing the jury on Toledano’s affirmative defense that his actions were protected under the litigation privilege.   The […]

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The Chiu Doctrine Applies to Conspiracy Liability
July 12th, 2016

In Chiu the Supreme Court held an aider and abettor may not be convicted of first degree premeditated murder under the natural and probable consequences doctrine. An aider and abettor’s liability for premeditated first degree murder must be based on direct aiding and abetting principles. See The Chiu Doctrine Explained In re Lopez (2016) 246 […]

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