FORECITE User’s Manual
I. ROLE OF FORECITE:
FORECITE is not intended to be a replacement or substitute for CALJIC or CALCRIM. The objective of FORECITE is to update, supplement and augment CALJIC or CALCRIM to reflect late developments not yet considered by, or included in, CALJIC or CALCRIM. Hence, by using CALJIC or CALCRIM and FORECITE TOGETHER more accurate, complete and up to date statements of the law will be obtained.
While a vigilant attorney might become aware of new developments in the law by analyzing and indexing advance sheets, changes in statutory language, and briefing in pending appellate and supreme court cases, it is extremely time consuming for any single individual to monitor all of these sources. FORECITE, via its team of editors, continually studies these sources to provide timely access to the latest developments in the law. By using FORECITE, the busy practitioner can now quickly access the most current cases, the “hottest” issues and the latest developments in substantive criminal law and jury instructions.
II. WHAT TO EXPECT FROM FORECITE:
The benefits of FORECITE extend to most phases of your practice from prelim to verdict. You will save time and effort, spot more issues, advance more persuasive arguments and generally become more knowledgeable and up-to-date about criminal law. Often you will be able to use FORECITE to plan winning pretrial strategies, negotiate favorable plea bargains and win important instructional battles. However, even in cases where such dramatic successes do not materialize, FORECITE can still produce valuable benefits. For example, should the court reject your proposed instruction, you may open up an avenue of argument to the jury by making the request. Moreover, in today’s hostile appellate environment, failure to register an instructional request or objection may procedurally default your client from raising the issue on appeal and/or on federal habeas.
In sum, you shouldn’t expect FORECITE to produce dramatic success in every case and with every judge. However, FORECITE instructions are being given by many judges and judges are becoming subscribers themselves. By consistently using FORECITE, you will succeed in winning many instructional battles, and producing better results for your clients.
III. WHEN TO USE FORECITE
As a General Research Tool: FORECITE is a valuable research tool to be used ANY TIME knowledge of substantive criminal law is important. You should consult FORECITE (and CALJIC or CALCRIM) at the very outset of a case to ascertain the substantive law which may impact your approach to the case.
As an Aid to Pretrial Strategy and Negotiation: The current and ready knowledge imparted by FORECITE has helped its subscribers to obtain dismissal or reduction of charges before trial, to be more effective in plea negotiations, to set up issues, to focus investigation, etc. For example, many subscribers have reported success in obtaining pretrial approval of FORECITE instructions. This kind of leverage can make all the difference in the outcome of plea negotiations.
For Jury Instructions: FORECITE is indispensable when working on jury instructions either at trial or on appeal. FORECITE helps you identify potential issues and gives you predrafted instructions with points and authorities which are ready to use — saving you valuable time and effort.
IV. HOW TO USE FORECITE:
A. Researching By The CALJIC or CALCRIM Number
FORECITE Is Indexed to CALJIC or CALCRIM: The FORECITE instructions and use notes are referenced by CALJIC or CALCRIM number so that you can conduct your research in FORECITE by using the CALJIC or CALCRIM number.
Simply refer to the “FORECITE” number that corresponds to the CALJIC or CALCRIM number you are updating. The FORECITE entries which relate to that CALJIC or CALCRIM instruction will be listed under that number. Cross references to other FORECITE entries will also be noted.
CITE THIS PUBLICATION AS FOLLOWS:
FORECITE instructions should be cited with reference to the instruction number. For example:
FORECITE F 2.52a
(FORECITE Instruction #)
FORECITE Notes should be cited with reference to the instruction number and note number. For example:
FORECITE F 2.52 , Note # 2
(FORECITE Instruction #)
B. Materials Not Referenced By CALJIC or CALCRIM Numbers
There are several areas in FORECITE that contain material not specifically correlated to the current CALJIC or CALCRIM numbers. These areas include the following:
1. Practice Guide: Comprehensive discussion of jury instruction principles including jury instruction language, court’s duties, counsel’s duties, general vs. specific intent, “how to” of writing pinpoint instructions, special verdicts, supplemental instructions, standards of review, etc. PRACTICE GUIDE Tab.
2. Bibliography: Comprehensive compilation of jury instruction annotations, articles, digests and texts. BIBLIOGRAPHY Tab.
3. Limiting and Cautionary Instructions not included in CALJIC or CALCRIM
4. Defenses not included in CALJIC: Instructions and notes regarding established defenses but not included in CALJIC NON-CALJIC DEFENSES Tab.
5. Enhancement Adjudication Guide. ENHANCEMENT ADJUDICATION Tab
6. Offenses not included in CALJIC. NON-CALJIC OFFENSES Tab.
7. Lesser Included Offenses. Discusses general rules and specific applications. LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSES Tab.
8. Lesser Related Offenses. Discusses general rules and specific applications. LESSER RELATED OFFENSES Tab.
• CHK I California Statutes and Rules of Court Relevant to Jury Instructions
• CHK II Sua Sponte Instructions
• CHK III Terms With A Specialized Or Technical Legal Meaning
• CHK IV Rules of Statutory Construction
• CHK V PC 1122(a) Checklist re: Preinstruction
Even though the above materials are not specifically referenced under CALJIC or CALCRIM numbers, they will be cross-referenced to other relevant CALJIC or CALCRIM numbers, e.g., claim of right defense (F 4.001) is also referenced under robbery (F 9.40a) and theft (F 14.00a).
V. REJECTED ISSUES:
FORECITE includes reference to selected instructional issues which have already been rejected by the California Courts of Appeal or Supreme Court. These issues are included to save you time and effort, which might otherwise be expended in researching a point which has already been rejected.
CAVEAT I: Your Case May Be Distinguishable Before giving up on a rejected issue, be sure that your case is not somehow distinguishable.
CAVEAT II: You May Want to Preserve the Issue for Federal Court Even if the California courts have previously rejected an issue, your client may wish to raise the point on federal habeas or certiorari to the U.S. Supreme Court. However to do so, the federal constitutional issue must be properly raised in state court. (See FORECITE Practice Guide § VII, “Federalizing the Request.”)
VI. FEDERALIZATION CAVEAT:
If a Federal Constitutional issue is not preserved at trial, the issue may be waived for later consideration on certiorari or federal habeas. (See FORECITE Practice Guide § VII.) While many of the more obvious federal claims are included in the FORECITE briefing and notes, it is virtually impossible to identify all potential federal issues which might apply to the circumstances of a given case. Counsel should independently evaluate what federal claims may apply.
VII. SUBSCRIBER INPUT:
FORECITE is a collaborative effort. We welcome ideas, briefing, comments (and criticisms) from our subscribers. Please let us know about your jury instruction ideas so we can consider them for FORECITE and better serve all the many criminal practitioners who subscribe to FORECITE. You can reach us at (800) 440-4780.
VIII. UNPUBLISHED AND DEPUBLISHED OPINIONS:
FORECITE includes citation to unpublished and depublished opinions which may not normally be cited or relied upon by the court or a party. (Rule 977(a); Rule 979(e).) In People v. Dee (90) 222 CA3d 760, 763-65 [272 CR 208], the Court of Appeal observed that a grant of review or depublication by the California Supreme Court may be significant notwithstanding rules 977(a) and 979(e) which state that depublication shall not be deemed an expression of an opinion of the Supreme Court as to the correctness of the result reached by the decision or of any of the law set forth in the opinion. However, in People v. Saunders (93) 5 C4th 580, fn 8 [20 CR2d 638], the court quoted rule 979(e) for the proposition that denials of review and depublication orders “shall not be deemed an expression of opinion” by the court. On the other hand, Justice Kennard, in dissent, endorsed the view of depublication taken by the court in Dee. The Supreme Court’s depublication and denials of review “cannot simply be dismissed as meaningless,” she wrote, and she quoted the words of the Dee court about refusing to “perpetuate a myth.” (5 C4th at 607-08.)
FEDERAL CASES: Published precedential decisions of a federal circuit panel binds all other panels in that circuit, as well as district judges, and may only be overruled by the circuit en banc or by the Supreme Court. Precedential decisions of the United States Supreme Court bind all lower courts. Decisions of other circuits may be persuasive authority, but bind no other courts outside of that circuit. Unpublished decisions may not be cited. (See Hart v. Massanari (9th Cir. 2001) 266 F3d 1155 [Ninth Circuit Rule 36-3 forbidding citation to unpublished decisions of that court does not violate Article III of the Constitution, notwithstanding Anastasoff v. U.S. (8th Cir. 2000) 223 F3d 898 (vacated as moot on reh’g, 235 F3d 1054)].)
a. How to obtain opinions from FORECITE Opinion Bank: Many of the unpublished opinions referenced in FORECITE are in FORECITE’s Opinion Bank. If the opinion is available through FORECITE, there will be a note to that effect with a reference number (e.g, O-#151) immediately following the citation to the opinion.
b. How to obtain opinions not available from FORECITE Opinion Bank: A “slip” opinion may be obtained from the Court of Appeal or Supreme Court. The letter which precedes the docket number designates the appropriate state appellate court to contact (e.g., A025195 would be the First District Court of Appeal in San Francisco). The following is a list of state and federal appellate courts:
A: First App. Dist. (San Francisco) (415) 865-7200 (Counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Del Norte, Humboldt, Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Solano, and Sonoma.)
B: Second App. Dist. (Los Angeles) (213) 897-2307 (Counties: Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo.)
C: Third App. Dist. (Sacramento) (916) 654-0209 (Counties: Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lassen, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Yolo and Yuba.)
D: Fourth App. Dist. Div. 1 (San Diego) (619) 645-2760 (Counties: San Diego and Imperial Counties.)
E: Fourth App. Dist. Div. 2 (Riverside) (909) 248-0200 (Counties: Riverside, San Bernardino and Inyo Counties.)
F: Fifth App. Dist. Div. (Fresno) (559) 445-5491 (Counties: Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Stanislaus, Tulare and Tuolumne.)
G: Fourth App. Dist. Div. 3 (Santa Ana) (714) 558-6777 (Counties: Orange County.)
H: Sixth App. Dist. Div. (San Jose) (408) 277-1004 (Counties: Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Benito.)
S: California Supreme Court – San Francisco. Office of the Clerk: 415-865-7000
U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals
San Francisco Office (415) 556-9800
U.S. District Court – Northern District
San Francisco Office (415) 522-2000
San Jose Office (408) 535-5364
Oakland Office (510) 637-3530
U.S. District Court – Eastern District
Sacramento Office (916) 930-4000
Fresno Office (559) 498-7483
U.S. District Court – Central District
Los Angeles Office (213) 894-0289
U.S. District Court – Southern District
San Diego Office (619) 557-5600
X. FREE BRIEFS ON CD-ROM:
FORECITE’s brief bank is a valuable free service included with your FORECITE subscription. Briefing by the state’s top attorneys is available on many issues. The brief bank also includes timely articles and selected unpublished appellate decisions which contain useful analysis. Available brief bank material is under the applicable CALJIC/CALCRIM/FORECITE numbers in the main volumes and the updates.
The following is a list of those whose contributed the briefs. FORECITE would also like to thank the many other contributors who have supplied briefing in printed format.
FORECITE has become a collaborative effort. Over the years, FORECITE has grown to include countless instructions, briefs, and ideas from some of the brightest trial and appellate minds in the defense community. The contributors include:
Robert D. Bacon, F 8.85 n30.
William M. Balin, B-693 (F 4.00 n10).
Bicka A. Barlow, M-3012 (F 2.80 n8).
Stephen B. Bedrick, O-249 (F 3.41 n3); O-262 (F 17.01 n26).
David Beneman, A-90 (F 10.80 n6).
Dean Benjamini, F 3475 Note 1.
Terrence J. Bennett, B-796 (F 8.21e).
Robert D. Blasier, I-868 (F 2.80 n8).
Edward G. Brooks, F 16.340 n2.
Phil Brooks, B-792 (F 14.41.1 n2.)
Michael Burt, I-870 (F 4.00 n9); M-3007 (DP II); M-3008 (F 0.25 n9 / F 17.42 n1); M-3015 (F 2.025 n4 ); M-3017 (F 8.85 n25/F 8.85 n26/F 8.85 n27); A-97 (F 2.80 n27); M-3018 (F 2.80 n28).
David D. Carico, B-889 (F 4.031 n3).
Kathy M. Chavez, B-838; B-839; B-842 (PG VII(C)(21) / F 3.00e / LRO II(B).)
Jason Cox, F 2.20o.
Cara DeVito, B-805, O-250 (F 6.50 n20).
Peter Dodd, B-713 (F 7.20 n5); B-797 (F 12.70 n8); B-811 (PG VII(C)(32), EA V(L)(2)); B-871 (F 12.24 n1); B-950 (F 2.15 n5(b)); B-951 (F 2.15h); B-952 (F 9.35 n8); B-955 (F 14.66a); B-957 (F 16.835 n5).
Dale Dombkowski, B-662 (PG VI(A)); B-674 (F 2.40 n1); B-675 (F 6.10d).
Mark D. Eibert, B-684 (F 17.50a).
Arnold Erickson, B-926 (F 8.87 Inst 3).
Jim Fahey, B-656 (F 8.42 n3; F 935.1 n3); B-661 (F 5.32 n2); B-724 and O-248 (F 8.81.19a); B-757 (F 5.12 n8); B-758 (F 851a); B-814 (F 2.20 n8); B-827 (F 2.50.01a); O-264 (F 10.61.1b).
Denise Ferry, A-79; A-80 (F 4.031 n1 / F 4.032 n1).
Carolyn J. Fershtman, B-657 (F 9.37 n4).
Bruce Finch, B-837, O-255 (LIO VI.)
Timothy J. Foley, M-3012 (F 2.80 n8); F 8.66.1a.
Robert Fracchia, F 3.12b, F 3.13b, F 3.16b, F 3.18c, I-867, B-788.
Joel Franklin, B-847 (F 8.31 n4).
Kyle Gee, F 3.02i, F 6.11d, F 6.11f.
Larry Gibbs, B-786 (PG VII(C)(32)(1), F 8.67 n2, EA V(L))
Michael Goldstein, F 2.90k; B-849 (F 10.00 n10); B-850 (F 10.00c).
Jerry P. Gordon, B-860 (F 10.00f).
Janet Gray, B-664 (PG X(E)); B-670 (F 3.00 n5); B-671 (F 8.31 n3); B-700 (LIO VI); B-707 (F 2.06 n8); B-793 (PG IX(C)(2); B-794 (PG IX(H)(6); F 8.75a); B-806 (F 8.55 n2); B-825 (PG VII(C)(34); B-851 (F 17.15 n10); B-864 (F 17.24.1 n21).
Stephen Greenberg, F 2.50h, i and j; F 2.51c; F 8.40 n11; B-682 (F 3.02e); B-702 (F 8.67 n1); B-709 (F 9.00 n7); F 2.52o; B-980; B-981; B-716 (F 8.40 n11); B-718 (F 6.10.5a); B-719 (F 8.45 n5); B-720 (F 8.45 n6).
Donna Groman, B-654 (F 6.50a).
Jonathan Grossman, M-3009 (F 1.04 n10).
Sandra Gillies, B-802 (F 12.01b).
Candace Hale, B-884 (F 2.23 n3).
Norman C. Hile, B-808 (DP II).
Marylou Hillberg, B-812, B-800f (PG IX(J)(7); F 17.55a; 17.41.1 n2); B-854 (2.50.01 n9); B-964 (F 8.66 n16).
Tamara Holland, B-803 (F 0.50d); B-826; O-254 (F 2.21.2 n2).
Handy Horiye, B-658 (F 9.95 n5.)
Robert F. Howell, B-856 (F 3.30 n5 / F 12.02 n15).
Peter J. Hughes, B-859 (F 10.33 n3).
Richard Ingram, B-689 (F 8.21a and F 8.21g).
Joan Isserlis, B-800a (F 17.41.1 n2).
James F. Johnson, B-870 (F 10.64 n3).
William Keller, B-809 (CHK IV).
C. Elliot Kessler, B-701 (F 2.52 n4 and F 2.52 n5).
Charles R. Khoury, Jr., B-692 (F 9.40 n14); B-877 (PG VII(C)(32)(6)); B-890 (F 17.01 n15); B-982 (F 3404).
Paul Klopper, A-72 [Medical Marijuana Instruction] (F 12.24.1a).
Sylvia Koryn, B-822 (F 2.50.01a).
Law Offices of Matthew Kumin, B-824 (LIO VI).
A. J. Kutchins, B-956 (F 8.45a).
Karen L. Landau, B-879, O-270 (F 7.15 n2).
Marcia Levine, B-807 (F 12.85b); B-866 (PG VI(A)(9); B-961 (F 3.40 n3/F 3.40 n4/F 3.41a/F 8.55 n1).
Donald Lipmanson, I-869 (F 6.10a / F 6.10b / F 6.10e / F 6.10g).
Kim Malcheski, A-73 (F 2.20h); B-816 (F 3.01j); B-817 (F 3.02 n11); B-819 (F 6.11e); B-823 (F 3.02a); B-844 (F 2.50.01a); B-845 (F 3.16 n4); B-853 (F 2.50.01 n4); B-880 (F 8.25.1 n3); B-881 (F 8.26 n3); B-883 (F 17.02 n21).
Gary Mandinach, A-69 (Three Strikes Update).
Stephen Matchett, B-800b (F 17.41.1 n2).
S. Michelle May, B-660 (F 5.15a); B-703 (F 12.70 n3 and n4); B-704 (LIO I(A)); B-759 (F 2.03d); B-787a (F 3.02 n19); B-795 [Brief 1] (F 3.02g); B-798 (F 17.02 n15); B-799 (F 17.30 n4); B-801 (CHK IV(B)); B-813 (F 1.04 n10); B-815 (F 2.50.01a); B-818 (F 4.60 n8); B-820 (F 9.54.1 n2); B-821 (F 9.54.1 n3); B-832 (F 8.20 n4) B-836 (F 17.20c); B-862 (F 4.001 n2 / F 14.50 n17); O-265 (F 17.24.1 n25); B-867 (F 2.90e); B-876 (F 17.25 n5); B-925 (F 3.30a); B-891 (F 10.00f); B-969 (F 17.02a); B-970 (F 2.71.5d); B-971 (F 4.00 n1); A-100 (F 8.81.22 n1).
Charles E. Maylen III, F 9.35.1b.
Madeline McDowell, B-960 (F 3.32 n11).
Jonathan P. Milberg, B-885 (F 2.50.01b).
Jay Moller, B-833; B-834; B-835 (F 9.40g / F 9.46 n6; F 9.50 n10; F 12.00d.)
David McNeil Morse, (F 2.90 n13); B-924 (F 3.02b).
Tara Mulay, B-838; B-839; B-842 (PG VII(C)(21) / F 3.00e / LRO II(B); B-863 (F 14.37 n5 / LIO VI).)
Robert M. Myers, B-860 (F 10.00f).
Robert Navarro, B-868 (F 2.92 n16 / F 2.92f / F 2.92i).
David Nelson, A-72 (12.24.1 n8).
Michael Ogul, A-75 (F 8.87 Inst 1).
Robert D. Platt, B-578 (F 10.42.6 n2).
Therene Powell, PG X(E)(26).
C. Delaine Renard, B-886 (F 2.80 n17).
Karen W. Riley, B-895 (F 18.56 n12); B-896 (F 18.56 n13).
Dennis R. Riordan, B-716 (F 8.40 n11).
William M. Robinson, F 10.20e/F 10.21a/F 10.22a/F 10.23a/F 10.24b/F 10.25a/F 10.26a.
Richard L. Rubin, B-714 (F 8.42 n6); B-865 (F 2.13a); B-882 (F 10.55 n2); B-963 (F 8.66 n15); B-965 (F 10.42 n6); B-966 (F 10.55 n1).
Sarah H. Ruddy, B-691 (F 5.12a).
Dallas Sacher, A-69 (EA VI(A)); A-95 (PG VII(C)(37)); PG X(E)(27); F 2.20 n10; F 2.20 n11; F 2.40 n4; F 2.50.01 n17; F 2.50.02 n14; F 2.80 n22; F 2.80 n23; F 10.41 n13; F 10.41 n14; B-848 (F 9.60 n7); O-261 (F 14.00 n15); B-852 (PG VII(C)(32)(3)); B-855 (F 3.18 n3); B-869 (F 10.42 n5); B-872 (F 17.01 n27); A-84 (PG X(B)(9)); A-85 (PG X(O)); B-875 (F 17.25 n10); B-892 (F 8.27 n5; F 9.52.1 n4; F 10.65 n4); B-894 (F 10.10d / F 10.20d / F 10.30d); F 14.66a; A-96 (PG V(A)(5.2)); B-959 (F 2.91 n3); B-962 (F 4.51 n6); F 9.42.1a; A-98 (PG VII(B)(6)); B-967 (F 9.54d); B-972 (F 12.85 n8); F 9.42.1b; F 5.55 n1; B-975; B-976; B-977; B-978; F 10.65b.
Dylan L. Schaffer, B-716 (F 8.40 n11).
Charles M. Sevilla, A-19 (F 4.006a.); A-99 (F 2.28 n2/F 2.28 n30; B-958 (F 2.90e); B-973 (PG X(L)(6)); F 2.50.01d and F 2.50.02e.
J. Courtney Shevelson, B-574c (F 8.80.1b).
Thomas Sims, O-272 (F 8.67 n6).
David Y. Stanley, B-800c (F 17.41.1 n2).
State Public Defender’s Office, B-810 (PG VII(C)(11).
John Steinberg, B-706 (PG X(H)).
Saor Stetler, M-3012 (F 2.80 n8).
Susan P. Stone, B-878 (F 2.50.01 n15) / B-878 (F 2.50.02 n12)).
Carole Strickman, B-678 (LIO VI).
Richard I. Targow, B-857 (F 4.031 n1).
Cynthia Thomas, B-840 (F 5.12d); B-861 (F 2.50.01 n12 / F 2.50.02 n9); B-873 (F 17.15 n10).
James S. Thomson, M-3012 (F 2.80 n8).
Roberta K. Thyfault, B-710 (F 9.50c/F 9.50d).
Sandra Uribe, B-874; O-267 (F 5.32 n3); B-923; O-315 (F 2.22 n1 / F 2.22 n2).
Robert V. Vallandigham, B-887 (F 2.90 n16); B-888 (F 2.90e).
Patricia L. Watkins, B-922 and O-314 (F 1.22 n1 / 5.12 n9 / F 5.15 n1 / F 5.50 n1 / F 5.51 n2 / F 5.17 n14 / F 5.17 n15); B-953 (F 9.35.1 n10); B-954 (F 9.35.1 n11).
Meredith J. Watts, B-688 (F 9.00 n6).
Mary Catherine Wiederhold, M-3009 (F 1.04 n10).
Matthew H. Wilson, B-828, B-829 (F 3.02 n11, F 3.02 n20).
Mark Windham, I-852 (F 5.17 n4).